Frederick E. Below, Jr


Dr. Below creates strategies to teach farmers and agricultural professionals the value of crop management decisions, and develops systems to sustainably produce high-yielding corn and soybeans. He evaluates environmental, genetic, and management factors that impact the productivity of corn and soybeans.

Primary Disciplines


  • Ph.D.: Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • M.S.: Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • B.S.: Agricultural Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Research Interests

  • Grain Quality for Processing Increasing starch quality and quantity for ethanol Improving hard endosperm food grade corn
  • Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) and Nutrient Uptake and Partitioning Discovering genes influencing maize responses to nitrogen: NitroGenes Understanding the Physiological and Genetic basis of NUE -Using field studies, hydroponics and in vitro kernel culture Influence of fertilizer form, placement timing on uptake and yield: Nutrients Variable Rate Nitrogen (VRN) technology Improving plant Bioenergy yield without excess N Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency – Metabolic and enzymatic differences between hybrids in yield production Amino acid signalling of plant N status
  • Crop Production Management Evaluation The Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World The Six Secrets of Soybeans Relation of early plant growth to yield Influence of ethylene inhibitors on plant physiology, biomass and yield Crop Rotation and Tillage effects- The Continuous Corn Yield Penalty Fertilizer placement and timing Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

Honors, Recognition, and Outstanding Achievements

  • Outstanding Presentation Award for 'The Six Secrets of Soybean Success' and 'Mineral Nutrition for High Yield Corn Production'.

Honors, Recognition, and Outstanding Achievements for Research

  • 2013 Excellence in Yield, Composition, and Profitability Award
  • 2014 Werner Nelson Award for outstanding contributions to the fluid fertilizer industry

Honors, Recognition, and Outstanding Achievements for Teaching

  • Campus Award for Excellence in Extramural Teaching
  • Incomplete List of Teachers listed as Excellent

Chapters in Books

Selected Articles in Journals

Other Publications

  • Indiana Agri-News article by Katie Nickas ‘300-bushel corn could be realized, plant scientist says. Dec. 27, 2012.
  • Farm Journal AgWeb article by Rhonda Brooks ‘Corn Under Construction.’ Dec. 8, 2012.
  • Seed Today article by Rich Keller ‘Should Farmers Mix Corn Hybrids?’ Sept. 16, 2012.
  • Farm Futures Magazine article by Willie Vogt ‘Learning Lessons: No time to stop now if high-yield crop is still your goal. Recover and move on.’ Sept. 2012 edition.
  • Illinois Agri-News article by Nat Williams ‘Corn Yields of 300 bushels possible if everything goes just right.’ Aug. 3, 2012.
  • Bloomberg News article by Jeff Wilson ‘U.S. Corn Growers Farming in Hell as Midwest Heat Spreads.’ July 9, 2013.
  • Corn and Soybean Digest article by Barb Baylor Anderson ‘300-bushel corn quest: Racehorse hybrids, nutrient placement critical.’ Sept. 1, 2012.

Invited Lectures

  • Syngenta Technology Forum. ‘7 Wonders of Corn Production.’ Basel, Switzerland. Mar. 26, 2012.
  • Central Ontario Agricultural Conference. ‘7 Ways to Push Your Yield Barrier.’ Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Jan. 4-6, 2012.
  • XIII Brazilian Congress of Plant Physiology. ‘The Quest for 20-Ton Maize.’ Buzios, Brazil. Sept. 19, 2011.
  • XIX Congress AAPRESID (no- till association in Argentina). Two invited presentations ‘The quest for 20- ton maize’ and ‘Strategies for improving nitrogen use efficiencies of maize’. Rosario, Argentina. Aug 15- 23, 2011.
  • 18th Annual Southwest Ag Conference. ‘The Quest for 300 bushel Corn’. Chatham, Ontario, Canada. Jan. 5-6, 2011.
  • TD Agriculture/ Fertilizer Investor Conference. ‘The formula for 300 bushel corn.’ Toronto, Canada. Nov. 18, 2010.
  • Mosaic AgCollege. 2010. ‘The 300 bushel corn yield formula?’ Orlando, FL Jan 13-15, 2010.
  • A-9 symposium: Applications for plant health and agronomic perspective at ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Annual meetings. ‘Is there a physiological benefit from strobilurin fungicides to yield of corn?’ Pittsburgh, PA. Nov. 1-5, 2009.
  • Joint symposium S04 & S08: Fertilizer efficiency improvement at ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Annual meetings. ‘Technology and biotechnology for better nitrogen use efficiency in corn.’ Pittsburgh, PA. Nov. 1-5, 2009.
  • 8th International Symposium on the plant hormone ethylene. ‘Ethylene control for achieving high yields.’ Ithaca, NY. June 21-25, 2009.
  • 'Using Maize as a Sugar Crop' Workshop on Plant Breeding and Biotechnology in the Great Pannonian Region- Present and Future Needs. PPBA and Agric. Inst Osijek, Osijek, Croatia. April 7-9, 2008
  • International Seminar on Crop Nutrition, Paysandu, Uruguay, May 8, 2007.
  • 'Crop Management for Biofuel Production: Managing Maize Hybrids for Fuel Ethanol Production' Keynote Presentation at the Chinese Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. April 24, 2007.
  • International Invited Presentations
  • The Fertilizer Institute and the Fertilizer Industry Round Table Fertilizer Outlook and Technology Conference. ‘7 Wonders of the Corn Yield World.’Philadelphia, PA. Nov. 12-15, 2012.
  • Understanding Yield Variability Across Spatial and Temporal Scales Special session. ASA- CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. ‘Opportunities for Managing the within field GxE interaction.’ Cincinnati, OH. Oct. 21-24, 2012.
  • The Solar Corridor’s Potential to Increase Solar Radiation Use Efficiency Symposium. ASA- CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. ‘Increasing Plant Population for Better RUE and Higher Yield of Corn.’ Cincinnati, OH. Oct. 21-24, 2012.
  • Syngenta Water Summit. (FEB and JWH) ‘Role of Drought Tolerant Hybrids in a Systems Approach to High Yield Corn.’ Denver, CO. Sept. 17-18, 2012.
  • Husker Harvest Days. (FEB and AH) ‘7 Wonders of Corn Yield.’ Grand Island, NE. Sept. 10-11, 2012.
  • Farm Progress Show. (FEB and AH) ‘7 Wonders of Corn Yield.’ Boone, IA. Aug. 28-30, 2012
  • Cargill ProShop VIP Meeting. ‘Key Factors Driving Corn Yields.’ Minneapolis, MN. Dec. 6, 2011.
  • Ag Retailers Association- ARA Conference. ‘Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World.’ Boca Raton, FL. Nov 29- Dec 1, 2011.
  • Farm Progress Show. ‘Seven wonders of the corn yield world.’ Decatur, IL. Aug 30- Sept 1, 2011.
  • Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 2011 meeting. Invited ‘Managing ethylene to achieve 300 bushel corn’ and volunteered ‘Changes in maize growth and reproductive development associated with aminoethoxyvinylglycine application’ Chicago, IL. July 25-26, 2011.
  • Farm Journal Corn College. ‘Advice to hit your yield goal.’ Bloomington, IL. July 19, 2011.
  • American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. ‘Future Crop Production: Is 300 bushel Corn Yield Possible?’ Des Moines, IA. Mar. 22, 2011.
  • Fluid Fertilizer Foundation Forum. ‘300 bushel Corn Sustainably’. with Dr. Laura Overstreet. Scottsdale, AZ. Feb. 21, 2011.
  • National Invited Presentations
  • South Dakota AgriBusiness Association Agronomy Conference. ‘The Quest for High-Yield Corn and Soybean.’ Sioux Falls, SD. Dec. 19-20, 2012.
  • South Dakota AgXchange. ‘Fertilizer: Placement + Timing = Profitability.’ Oahe Speedway, SD. June 28-29, 2012.
  • BASF Nebraska Consultant Meeting. ‘Seven Wonders of High Yield Corn.’ Las Vegas, NV. Jan 11-12, 2012.
  • Pioneer Northeast Iowa Agronomy Seminar. ‘7 Wonders of Corn Production- Qwest for 300 Bushel Corn.’ Independence, IA. Feb. 15, 2012.
  • Wisconsin Corn/ Soy Expo. ‘Seven Wonders of the Corn World.’ Wisconsin Dells, WI. Feb. 2-3 2012.