Sarah Refi Hind

Assistant Professor

Dr. Hind examines how the plant immune system detects pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases on tomato and other vegetable crops. Her research contributes to the understanding of plant-microbe interactions and aids in the development of plants with enhanced resistance to infection.

Primary Disciplines


  • B.S. Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina-Columbia, 2005
  • Ph.D. Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina-Columbia, 2010

Academic Positions

  • Postdoctoral Associate, University of South Carolina-Columbia, 2010-2011
  • Postdoctoral Associate, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, 2011-2016
  • Research Associate, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, 2016-2017
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, 2017-present

Selected Articles in Journals

  • Powell AF, Courtney LE, Schmidt MHW, Feder A, Vogel A, Xu Y, Lyon DA, Dumschott KE, McHale M, Suplice R, Bao K, Duhan A, Hallab A, Denton AK, Mueller LA, Alseekh S, Lie J, Martin C, Fernie AR, Hind SR, Martin GB, Fei Z, Giovannoni JJ, Strickler SR, Usadel B. (2020) A Solanum lycopersicoides reference genome facilitates biological discovery in tomato. bioRxiv 2020.04.16.039636.
  • Roberts R, Liu AE, Wan L, Geiger AM, Hind SR, Rosli HG, and Martin GB. (2020) Molecular characterization of differences between the tomato immune receptors Fls3 and Fls2. Accepted in Plant Physiology.
  • Grissett L, Ali A, Coble A-M, Logan K, Washington B, Mateson A, McGee K, Nkrumah Y, Jacobus L, Abraham E, Hann C, Bequette CJ, Hind SR, Schmelz EA, and Stratmann JS. (2020) Survey of Sensitivity to Fatty Acid-Amino Acid Conjugates in the Solanaceae. Journal of Chemical Ecology 46: 330-343.
  • Roberts R, Hind SR, Pedley KF, Diner BA, Szarzanowicz MJ, Luciano-Rosario D, Majh BB, Popov G, Sessa G, Oh C-S, and Martin GB. (2019) Mai1 protein acts between host recognition of pathogen effectors and MAPK signaling. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32(11):1496-1507.
  • Mazo-Molina C, Mainiero S, Hind SR, Kraus CM, Vachev M, Maviane-Macia F, Lindeberg M, Saha S, Strickler SR, Feder A, Giovannoni JJ, Smart CD, Peeters N, and Martin GB. (2019) The Ptr1 Locus of Solanum lycopersicoides Confers Resistance to Race 1 Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum by Recognizing the Type III Effectors AvrRpt2 and RipBN. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32(8):949-960.
  • Roberts R, Mainiero S, Powell AF, Liu AE, Shi K, Hind SR, Strickler SR, Collmer A, and Martin GB. (2019) Natural variation for unusual host responses and flagellin-mediated immunity against Pseudomonas syringae in genetically diverse tomato accessions. New Phytologist 223(1):447-461.
  • Bequette CJ, Hind SR, Pulliam S, Higgins R, and Stratmann JW. (2018) MAP kinases associate with high molecular weight multiprotein complexes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 69(3); 643-654.
  • Hind SR, Hoki JS, Baccile JA, Boyle PC, Schroeder FC, and Martin GB. (2017) Detecting the interaction of peptide ligands with plant membrane receptors. Current Protocols in Plant Biology, 2, 240-269.
  • Hind SR, Strickler SR, Boyle PC, Dunham DM, Bao Z, O'Doherty IM, Baccile JA, Viox EG, Clarke CR, Vinatzer BA, Schroeder FC and Martin GB. (2016) Tomato receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3 binds flgII-28 and activates the plant immune system. Nature Plants 2:16128.
  • Boyle PC, Schwizer S, Hind SR, Kraus CM, De la Torre Diaz S, He B and Martin GB. (2016) Detecting N-myristoylation and S-acylation of host and pathogen proteins in plants using click chemistry. Plant Methods 12:38.
  • Veluchamy S, Hind SR, Dunham DM, Martin GB and Panthee DR. (2014) Natural variation for responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in heirloom tomatoes. PLoS One 9(9): e106119.
  • Clarke CR, Chinchilla D, Hind SR, Taguchi F, Miki R, Ichinose Y, Martin GB, Leman S, Felix G and Vinatzer BA. (2013) Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility. New Phytologist 200(3): 847-860.
  • Hind SR, Pulliam S, Veronese P, Shantharaj D, Nazir A, Jacobs N, and Stratmann JW. (2011) The COP9 signalosome controls jasmonic acid synthesis and plant responses to herbivory and pathogens. The Plant Journal 65(3):480-491.
  • Dombrowski JE, Hind SR, Martin RC, and Stratmann JW. (2011) Wounding systemically activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase in forage and turf grasses. Plant Science 180(5):686-693.
  • Stratmann JW and Hind SR. (2011) Gene silencing goes viral and uncovers the private life of plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 140:91-102.
  • Hind S, Malinowski R, Yalamanchili R, and Stratmann JW. (2010) Tissue-type specific systemin perception and the elusive systemin receptor. Plant Signaling and Behavior 5(1):42-44.
  • Degenhardt DC, Hind SR, Stratmann JW, and Lincoln DE. (2010) Systemin and jasmonic acid regulate constitutive and herbivore-induced systemic volatile emissions in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Phytochemistry 71(17-18):2024-2037.